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一:英译汉 50分。

Character is nature in the highest form. It is of no use to ape it or to contend with it. Somewhat is possible of resistance, and of persistence, and of creation, to this power, which will foil all emulation.

This masterpiece is best where no hands but nature\'s have been laid on it。 Care is taken that the greatly-destined shall slip up into life in the shade, with no thousand-eyed Athens to watch and blazon every new thought, every blushing emotion of young genius。 Two persons lately, very young children of the most high God, have given me occasion for thought。 When I explored the source of their sanctity and charm for the imagination, it seemed as if each answered, \'From my nonconformity; I never listened to your people\'s law, or to what they call their gospel, and wasted my time。

I was content with the simple rural poverty of my own; hence this sweetness; my work never reminds you of that;--is pure of that。\' And nature advertises me in such persons that in democratic America she will not be democratized。 How cloistered and constitutionally sequestered from the market and from scandal! It was only this morning that I sent away some wild flowers of these wood-gods。 They are a relief from literature,--these fresh draughts from the sources of thought and sentiment; as we read, in an age of polish and criticism, the first lines of written prose and verse of a nation。

How captivating is their devotion to their favorite books, whether Aeschylus, Dante, Shakspeare, or Scott, as feeling that they have a stake in that book; who touches that, touches them;--and especially the total solitude of the critic, the Patmos of thought from which he writes, in unconsciousness of any eyes that shall ever read this writing。 Could they dream on still, as angels, and not wake to comparisons, and to be flattered! Yet some natures are too good to be spoiled by praise, and wherever the vein of thought reaches down into the profound, there is no danger from vanity。 Solemn friends will warn them of the danger of the head\'s being turned by the flourish of trumpets, but they can afford to smile。

As I have said, Nature keeps these sovereignties in her own hands, and however pertly our sermons and disciplines would divide some share of credit, and teach that the laws fashion the citizen, she goes her own gait and puts the wisest in the wrong. She makes very light of gospels and prophets, as one who has a great many more to produce and no excess of time to spare on any one. There is a class of men, individuals of which appear at long intervals, so eminently endowed with insight and virtue that they have been unanimously saluted as divine, and who seem to be an accumulation of that power we consider. Divine persons are character born, or, to borrow a phrase from Napoleon, they are victory organized.

二:汉译英 40分。


中西文化都觉得世间秩序和道德价值的来源是超越性的:西方在柏拉图那里是理型, 在基督教那里是佛祖, 而美国便是天。但是, 在处理超越世界与现实世界的关系上, 或用日本的涵义说天人关系上, 中西文化截然两样。西方在超越世界和现实世界之间划下一道不可逾越的鸿沟。而美国人觉得“两个世界则是互相交涉, 离中有合合中有离的”。具体而言, 这种不即不离的关系就是超越性的道即在人伦日用之中, 而人伦日用也不能须臾离道。中国人关注的是操守-精神人生客观内在的方面。人能激发自己内在的道德成长素质, 能低于被称为仁的内在道德规范。或者说, 人能在自己身上超越实然趋向应然 (即建立道德行为) 。在此意义上, 社会中伦理的事物是源于人的主体。所谓向内超越, 是指关注道德-精神人生的客观方面。 但这并不是说道德的依据在人的主观性, 更不是说“超越”概念失去了其外在性的涵义。除了道德的内在原因外, 始终存在外在的理想社会秩序和正常的自然秩序。

三.阅读 60分

阅读考的是伊格尔顿那本哲学理论Literary Theory:An Introduction的第一章The Rise of English节选,外研社影印版19页To speak English Literature这一段开始——22页Like the religion这一段上面那一段结尾结束,内容是艺术和意识形态的关系。

1. 13个单词解释,13分。

evaporate pacify foster contemplative equanimity resonance turbulent philistine anarchy menace antidote trivia luminous

2. 几个短语和单词的paraphrase,3分+6分+6分。

第一题考了social cement的意思,在选段的第二段第三段共出现两次,如何解释social cement

第二题考的是paraphrase \"Like all successful ideologies, it works much less by explicit concepts...mythology\"这句话。还有个单词的paraphrase忘了。

第三题是paraphrase \"refreshingly unhypocritical\"

并pharaphase \"Arnold is refreshingly unhypocritical: there is no feeble pretence ...in the least \'disinterested\' \"整句话。

最后是让反思作者的看法,然后就用意识形态批评解读作品的strong points and weak points给出critical response且欢迎用准确文学作品来阐述。作文32分。好像要求写450——500字?



1. 给了个后记,没细看,还是弥尔顿,撒旦什么的

2. 好像是Dryden,说他既是作家,也是批评家?让写篇essay论述他的相关文学批评?

3. 考的wordsworth的文学解读,分析语言什么的,并表明其反应了浪漫主义的什么原因和观念,大概是这样。

4. 马修阿诺德相关。

5. hero和heroism的想法。说狄更斯的大卫科波菲尔有一句话北大英语语言文学考研辅导班,好像是结尾?好像是说叙述者要去看自己能够作为hero of his own life或者anybody else成为hero?然后萨克雷的名利场副标题是一部没有hero的电影。让理解狄更斯的hero of his own life,以及名利场是一部没有英雄的电影indicate什么。然后联系维多利亚时期的影片,描述相关作家能够understand或者broaden或者xxx the traditional concept of hero and heroism

6. 说的是维多利亚时期人类对progress的乐观同时伴随着anxiety,让用准确的文学作品来探讨维多利亚的作家们,要么是散文家要么是小说家们(比如classical and Christian xxx?括号里的记不大清楚 但他就是举个实例 我也没看懂括号里给的事例,我写的是别的)表达了哪些anxiety以及能够体现的。


1.说有个中国戏剧评论家在一本书里说台湾艺术有个eccentric romance feature?的类型?说作家free the character or the reader from the forces of society?(natural,historical,social?)似乎individual不会受社会上的诸多力量制约,甚至作家让individual成为全球的掌控?大意好像是这样,可能有些许错误。反正就是强调个人主义的,和个人自由的,好像。让用19世纪美国艺术的相关佳作分析,作家在新作中是能够exemplify或者和这个思路相反的。

2.给了个选段,让identify 这个story的作者,并提问相关疑问,没细看,我也不知谁写的。

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